ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION: the historical experience, modernity and prospects

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People around the world are more connected to each other than ever before. Information and money flow quicker than ever. It is much easier for people to travel, communicate and do business internationally. This whole phenomenon has been called globalization. Spurred on in the past by merchants, explorers, colonialists and internationalists, globalization has in more recent times been increasing rapidly due to improvements in communications, information and transport technology. It has also been encouraged by trade liberalization and financial market deregulation.


Introduction 3
The essence of globalization 5
1.1. The notion of globalization 5
1.2. Basis of economic globalization 8
2. Main problems of globalization 10
2.1. The background to principal problems 10
2.2. Differences between development levels
of developed and developing countries 11
2.3. Problems of achieving equal
competitive conditions 13

3. Estimation of globalization 16
3.1. Positive estimations of conditions and
perspectives of globalization 16
3.2. Negative estimations of conditions and
perspectives of globalization 17
Conclusion 18
Bibliography 20

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    the historical experience, modernity and prospects. 

Student: Gulyaeva A.

Group: 5101 

Supervisor: Prof. Lisovskaya E.G.  





     Introduction        3 

  1. The essence of globalization                                       5 

         1.1. The notion of globalization                                    5

         1.2. Basis of economic globalization                             8

     2. Main problems of globalization                                      10 

           2.1. The background to principal problems                 10

         2.2. Differences between development levels

               of developed and developing countries                 11

         2.3. Problems of achieving equal

                competitive conditions                                          13                              

     3.  Estimation of globalization                                       16 

         3.1. Positive estimations of conditions and

              perspectives of globalization                                  16

         3.2. Negative estimations of conditions and

               perspectives of globalization                                  17                                   

Conclusion                 18 

Bibliography        20 


     People around the world are more connected to each other than ever before. Information and money flow quicker than ever. It is much easier for people to travel, communicate and do business internationally. This whole phenomenon has been called globalization. Spurred on in the past by merchants, explorers, colonialists and internationalists, globalization has in more recent times been increasing rapidly due to improvements in communications, information and transport technology. It has also been encouraged by trade liberalization and financial market deregulation.  

     It is difficult to find a theme which will be more urgent and controversial then the theme of globalization. The problems of globalization are discussed today by everyone: scientists and politicians, journalists and businessmen, people from all over the world. This global phenomenon has its own origins and its own genesis. It has been defining life of humanity for the last 30-40 years.  

     Globalization is not only a spatial term, but a temporal one: it has a definite past, the complex present and a vague future. Spatio-temporal context of globalization, its evolutional and at the same time revolutional nature caused the variety of points of view on this process. It was analyzed in terms of philosophical, historical, economical, politological and other traditional disciplines.

Being the object of both scientific and mass consciousness, it is estimated from absolutely different opinions: from passionate apologetics to categorical disapproval of this phenomenon, from strong arguments for globalization to weighty evidences of its negative consequences, from seeing the highest level of human socialization in this phenomenon to seeing the source of worldwide problems in it. But the truth is somewhere in the middle as usual. And we have to remember that this is the objective reality, practical and theoretical phenomenon which needs to be seriously analyzed.  

     In an age of globalization, it is still a hot debate of whether globalization is an advantage or disadvantage to our society. Every day you hear it on the news, you read it in the newspapers and you hear people talking about it and in every single instance the word globalization seems to have a different meaning.  

     Globalization influences basic spheres of human life and transforms public and state institutes. It causes serious world-wide problems of modern times such as growth of social inequality, demographical problems, ecological problems, terrorism. But at the same time globalization offers a higher standard of living for people in rich countries and is the only realistic route out of poverty for the world’s poor, spreads technological knowledge, and increases political liberation. Pro-globalization groups e.g. World Trade Organization and the United Nations believe that globalization helps to reduce poverty and increase living standards as well as encourage a better cultural understanding. Also, due to globalization, there can be international co-operation to solve environmental and social problems.  

     I would like to express my own opinion in this subject, trying to show the manifestation of globalization, to analyze positive and negative effects of this phenomenon and to shape the strategy of developing in terms of quickly globalized world. 



  1. The essence of globalization.
    1. The notion of globalization.

     The notion of ‘globalization’ (from the English word globe) emphasizes a planetary nature of this phenomenon.

     The notion itself appeared in the first half of the 80-s. It is thought that ‘globalization’ was first mentioned by T.Levitt in 1983 in the magazine ‘Harward Business Review’ and then in his book “The globalization of markets” (1983). With the help of this neologism T.Levitt characterized the process of merging markets of different goods made by multinational corporations. He emphasized that such processes lead to the fact that markets are not grasped as separate units anymore, but they appear as the united global market.1 

     The active usage of the word ‘globalization’ began in 1996 after the 25th session of World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, where the discussion on ‘Globalization of the basic processes on the planet’ was organized.

In 1997 the Moscow magazine “Expert” wrote: ‘Globalization is a universal hit of this year which is rehashed in all languages..’.2 This phrase refers to the fact that globalization is an extremely broad phenomenon that can be described in a multitude of definitions; however the most common is that globalization is the dynamic process by which nations and economies around the world become more interdependent. It can also be described as ‘…a widening, deepening and speeding up of worldwide interconnectedness in all aspects of contemporary social life, from the cultural to the criminal, the financial to the spiritual’.3 This means that globalization is not strictly an economic phenomenon: social, cultural and political convergence, such as the formation of international institutions (i.e., the World Bank or United Nations), has played an important role in fostering global interdependence. 

     Nevertheless, if we combine numerous opinions about globalization, we can discover some typical traits of globalization, and the main will be:

  • growing interrelationship and interdependency of countries and nations in different spheres of human life
  • formation of the worldwide financial and economic space, formation of      the market which spreads in a planetary scale, merge of separate economies into a global system with common rules for everyone
  • informational revolution which resulted in creation of the world wide web, global television set, the Internet etc.
  • change of functions of the government, growing role of the spheres of activities of suprastate organizations and transnational associations
  • formation of the more universal world, spreading of the system of liberal-democratic values, which were accumulated by the euroatlantic civilization
  • spreading of the ideology and policy of globalization

Observing these traits, it is obvious that there are objective foundations of this process and subjective factors as well.  

The essence of globalization and the main tendency of its development is a formation of an integral world, a global human community, a new type of civilization.

An integral world means:

  • establishment of the international connections in all spheres of human life
  • harmonization of relations in a system ‘human – society – nature’
  • development of global structures in different spheres of human life
  • institutionalization of globalization

A global human community characterizes by:

  • consolidation of people with common destiny in the ‘common planetary house’
  • people’s realization of belonging to a common human race, which has common aims (the main is to preserve Homo Sapiens and life on the planet)
  • formation of the global ethnos in the end

A new type of civilization presupposes:

  • transformation of the local civilizations into the planetary civilization
  • usage of more valuable things in cultural heritage of nations
  • formation of a number of new basic values
  • creation of a global world-view and admittance of universal ethics

     Modern life is complicated, conflicts ‘shake’ the world and relations between people are far from harmony, but without an ideal and a vision of perspectives it is impossible to define the final directivity of this phenomenon.

In this case globalization is aimed to change the modern society and world order, to implement the ancient idea of integrity of the world, unity of human community, saving its original components.

I can agree with professor V.B. Kuvaldin, who mentions that practically scientists are talking about creation of a ‘megasociety’. And the process of its formation has just started. Megasociety is created under the influence of the information revolution and undergoes: “… deep transformation of the spatial and time organization of social links and relations. Private and public life gain the third dimension that changes the old coordinates system. This meta-space becomes both a specific environment for the interaction of the new communities and a universal domain for the usual geographical spaces ”.4 

     For a long period of time globalization has been spanning basic spheres of human life:

  • political (when tribes transformed into nations; governments, regional communities, supranational operating controls were formed)
  • religious (when world religions replaced heathenism)
  • geographical and geopolitical (when the great migration of peoples took place, new land was discovered, new empires were created)
  • ideological (when different social ideas were spread to various nations and countries)
  • informational (when speech , written language, mass media, Internet were created)
  • economic (when great trade ways were laid ,transnational organizations, world economy and world finances were formed)

I would like to analyze the last aspect which was mentioned, because economic life of lots of countries is greatly influenced by the globalization ideology. 

    1. Basis of economic globalization.

Economics has always played an important role in the human life.

And with the help of globalization world economy occurs.

Today’s stage of economic globalization differs from all other stages of internationalization and integration.

The current stage of economic globalization has its own distinctive features. The main are that:

  • the process of ‘completing’ the global economy, universal liberalization of market relations takes place;
  • free and immediate capital flow comes to be a reality
  • a principal role of a human capital changes5
  • every-day economic life changes (the same goods, which are supplied to the world market,  are in demand of everybody, new standards of behaviour, communication, etiquette, entertainment, which are not connected to national and cultural attributes, are formed6)

Moreover, economic globalization takes many forms. It may involve trade between individuals or businesses in one country with individuals or businesses of another. Globalization of this sort is rather old. Ancient tribes traded with others, each gaining prized goods. Today, we take for granted the fact that much of what we consume or use originated somewhere else. Or businesses may decide to produce their products not only at home but also in other countries, either to evade the tariffs or quotas of countries where they wish to sell their products or to cut their costs of production by hiring cheaper labour for example. Then globalization involves the bundling together of financial capital, technology and other strategic inputs in order to transfer them as direct foreign investment in another country.

The activities of transnational corporations are a form of globalization. They coordinate their activities with many entities throughout the world, producing in many places with complex networks of production and finance. This form of globalization has recently been named "alliance capitalism," in order to stress the growing importance of strategic alliances between business entities, as businesses search for ways to protect their competitive advantages and global market positions.

Governments also compete for economic advantage globally. They often support private research and development activities, finance worker retraining, protect the environment, and promote inter-firm alliances. When governments decide it is in their interest to cooperate rather than compete, they may form supranational organizations, like the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Trade Organization (WTO), or less formal ones, in order to achieve shared objectives, for example stable macroeconomic conditions, more growth through trade, or "market-friendly" economies.

Also, there are several globalization trends. I will describe the main trends. The first one is a rapid growth of trade. Since the Second World War, trade between nations has grown much faster than world economic output primarily for three reasons. First, rapid improvements in transportation and communications made it easier and cheaper to reach new markets. Second, successive rounds of tariff negotiations have virtually eliminated border barriers among developed countries and many less developed countries have unilaterally reduced their tariffs and quotas. Third, processing trade (trade that involves goods whose components cross borders more than once before reaching final buyers) expanded rapidly. Trade is widespread for almost all nations and its importance is rising everywhere. Trade between nations also has been transformed in recent years, from transactions over which national governments exercise significant control to a form of globalized trade engineered and managed by large, dominant transnational corporations - transnational trade.

And the second trend is a growth of foreign direct investment. There are at least 39,000 transnational corporations owning production facilities outside their country. Direct investments by these large firms, which are growing more than twice as fast as trade, are probably the best indicators of the growth of deep cross-border economic integration. In fact, worldwide sales of the foreign subsidiaries of transnational enterprises now exceed the value of all internationally traded goods.

Most direct investment decision-makers are in the leading industrial countries, but at the same time investment decisions by firms in developing countries like South Korea and Brazil are increasing rather rapidly. The largest 100 transnational corporations are evaluated to control about one-third of the assets which are held by transnational corporations abroad.

There is no doubt that the expansion of international trade and direct investments have benefited many people. Changes in policies and technological advances provided a strong basis for economic growth. And with globalization, capital can be shifted to any country which offers the most productive investment opportunities.

But globalization also has its costs, and we have to remember this in order to assess its true consequences.

  1. Main problems of globalization.

    2.1. The background to principal problems.                  

Global problems of modernity refer to interest s of the all humanity in contrast to local or regional problems.

There is a number of problems, which are connected with the process of globalization:

  • Problem of prevention war and maintenance peace
  • Problem of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons
  • Problem of providing ecological balance
  • Problem of providing global energetic security
  • Problem of eradication illiteracy
  • Problem of elimination the universal terrorism

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