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Since the dawn of time people had disagreements on different topics and, as all people are different, there was variety of ways to show those disagreements. When it came to the larger groups of people, the disagreements became protests, and more often those protest took place in the center of the cities or in some open spaces, seen to everybody. Based on the specific problems faced by the opposition, it is necessary to competently and adequately choose the format of the street protests.
There are the following best-known forms of street protest actions.
National Technical University of Ukraine
«Kyiv Polytechnic Institute»
Faculty of Management
on the topic:
«Acts of protest in Ukraine»
junior student of FMM
Tsaregradskaya Kateryna Viktorivna
the dawn of time people had disagreements on different topics and, as
all people are different, there was variety of ways to show those disagreements.
When it came to the larger groups of people, the disagreements became
protests, and more often those protest took place in the center of the
cities or in some open spaces, seen to everybody. Based on the specific
problems faced by the opposition, it is necessary to competently and
adequately choose the format of the street protests.
There are the following best-known forms of street protest actions.
Meeting – this is the massive presence of people in a certain place for a public expression of public opinion on topical issues mainly socio-political nature.
The demonstration – organized public expression of public sentiment with a group of citizens during the movement of posters, banners and other graphic materials.
Procession – the mass of citizens passing on a predetermined route to draw attention to any problems.
There are no principal differences between the concepts "demonstration" and "procession", generally speaking – they are identical.
Conducting a mass gathered under the slogans of the opposition is a classic form of organized street protests. Opposition groups in order to confirm their claim to participate in public decision-making, claims on the formation of governments, to demonstrate public support for their ideas, is configured to provide mass support for its outdoor activities. Therefore, most opposition parties during the year tend to organize at least the minimum number of truly mass demonstrations against the current government initiatives and to support their own ideas.
Preparation of a mass event focuses on a number of key organizational areas:
Determining the date of the event. Date, usually tied to any anniversary, or a specific information about (for example, consideration of the parliament to initiate legislation, opposed by the opposition) - thus, there is a semantic content of the date on which the event is scheduled. In addition, to ensure maximum turnout of activists and supporters, public events are usually prescribed for the weekend.
Coalition politics. It aims to bring to the organization of events initiated its allied political and social organizations. As a result of agreements formed the event steering committee that includes representatives of all organizations that have decided to participate, and who share the organizational functions, determine the share of financial participation in budgeting activities.
Common technique is the application of the organizing committee to participate in the event of virtual public associations created, in fact, specifically in order to confirm the mass forthcoming events in its preparation. Typically, this is done, if the organizers cannot reach agreement with the real social organizations, but there is a need to bring to the event not only activists and supporters of their own organization, but also people who just care about this issue. For example, if a political party holds rally against education reform, in leaflets, inviting citizens to participate in it, it may contain statements that “The meeting supported the independent trade union movement of students” and “Students - For free education” - that is, the organizations set up specifically to support a specific initiative that political party.
Mobilization of the asset. To ensure mass street actions necessary to conduct its training so as to form a nucleus of activists participating associations, organizers, that is, people who take part in this event for sure. It was activists often carry banners and flags, provide support for noise events, while the men who came to take part in the rally, but have no direct relation to either one of the organizations conducting it, usually prefer to behave more passively limiting their participation just finding among its participants.
It is preferred to conduct the gathering of activists some time before the event and before nominating the people, who will take part in the protest, to distribute them to the coordinators and give them general instruction.
practice is to attract the mass opposition protest leaders from the
regional offices of the organizations conducting the event. Naturally,
the key issue here is financial support for transportation expenses
as well as the use of regional assets to participate in the protest
in a different city almost always gives a very low impact. On the other
hand, the involvement of the regional delegation gives a positive effect
both for the development of a regional network of the opposition movement
and positioning of public events – a mass protest much be well understood
by society and the media if it is attended by representatives of regions.
Quite often in the practice of organizing mass protests, there are cases
when the organizers give the activists nameplates in different regions
of the country (just to emphasize the national character of the protest).
Often the issue even nameplates of those regions, whose representatives
participated in the event do not accept.
Providing media support can be arranged through the following organizational objectives:
- The formation of a pool of media partners (organization of work with the friendly opposition media interested in covering the event, the rapid provision of the editorial media exclusive information and placing announcements);
- Advertising the event in the media space (with corresponding features of the budget measures is effective placement of announcements in the event of non-political media on a commercial basis);
- Launch of the website (online posting information related to the preparation activities on the Internet - a relatively inexpensive tool for the rapid alert the media and concerned citizens, advocates and activists);
- Press conference on the eve of the event (the additional information occasion associated with public speaking leaders of organizations, conducting a mass event, just prior to its beginning, and this will warm up the interest for it as from the media’s as from the public’s side).
of promotional materials with the announcement of the event is usually
done through the following distribution channels:
- The information ("speaking") picket is exhibited in public places (subway station, opposite the site walk-through schools, factories, etc.). The optimum time – from the beginning and till the end of the day. Number of participants – about 2-3 people. Necessary Attributes - symbols (flag, coat) and the pillar placed on it with bright, eye-catching poster. The essence of an information picket - the distribution of leaflets to passers with the announcement of the upcoming public event and a personal invitation to take part in it;
- Direct Mail (target distribution). In political and social organizations there is usually a base of supporters, prepared, for example, in the course of the election or civil public and political campaigns. Subscribe via e-mail signed by the leader of the union of personal invitations can mobilize supporters to participate in the event a substantial portion thereof;
Distribution of information leaflets through letter boxes – the
classic method of field work associations. Organizing Committee has
to prepare a database of homes, to which is planned to carry out the
distribution of leaflets through letter boxes. The database should contain
the addresses of houses, apartments and the number of codes porches.
Activists organizations conducting the event, get your hands on flyers
announcing the event, and pass through the door, dropping them in mailboxes.
More or less serious effects of this method of dissemination of information
is possible only during the two-wave spacing of leaflets;
- Spamming. Spam - is anonymous unsolicited mass e-mailing usually have advertising. Processing chain of spammers is as follows:
* collection and verification of electronic addresses. Classification by type of address;
*preparation of "points of distribution" - computers that will be distributed through spam;
* development of software for mailing;
* search for recipients;
* the creation of advertisements for a particular distribution;
* product distribution.
Forming the intrigue factor during the preparation of the event. Artificial warming up of interest from the media and the public during the preparation of the event is an important factor in its media coverage and in attraction of potential supporters. Intrigue can be connected, for example, to the risk of the ban by the authorities of mass action, which adds to the event and scandalous, naturally stirs up interest in it .
Involvement of celebrities gives the event elements of the show
and, of course, makes it more appealing to ordinary citizens. Often
people come just to see or hear well-known figure of art, journalism
or pop. Technology is fairly common organization of pop concert on the
results of the meeting, which is also an additional incentive for citizens
to take part in this event.
- Regional action to support. The organization shares with identical slogans and goals in several regions (albeit much less massive than the central event) reformats the event in general federal and, consequently, increases its political weight, sound information, as well as regional organizations to mobilize unions, members of the committee.
Picket - a form of public expression, carried out without the use of
movement and sound-amplifying technical means by placing the object
in picketing one or more citizens using posters, banners and other graphic
There are two basic types of picketing:
1. Information ("speaking") picket.
Purpose - dissemination of information, such as the mass of the impending event of meeting with the candidate, etc. Pickets are set at the points of concentration of large masses of people - the "peak" at hubs metro, urban interchanges, at railway stations and platforms, and a day at the weekend - in the markets, at the entrance to the city parks, the parks themselves and etc. Number of participants - 2-3. Required attributes: symbols (flag, coat) and the pillar placed on it with bright, eye-catching poster. The picket, which extend invitations to events, should be seen as the dissemination of information.
2. Political rally.
Purpose - a statement of political positions, public protest group of citizens and to attract media attention and public opinion to a given problem. As a rule, political organizations have been picketing in connection with the fact that there is a need to react to an event of political life, and time to issue the documentation for a rally is not enough. The fact that notice of the picketing served in government for three days, while the notice of the marches and rallies - for 10 days.
Key attributes of picketing: banners, posters, folding table with handouts (newspapers, leaflets, calendars).
During the picketing, citizens have the right to chant slogans, but they have no right to use amplification.
Staged action – this is a statement of political position or expression of political protest in a creative way with the use of theatrical props and with the assistance (if required) professional actors. In fact, the theatrical protest - it's political exploitation of phenomena in art, known as happening (born happening, to happen - happen, occur), and performance.
Happening – this is the direction in postmodernism, transformed by the creation of aesthetic objects to works of processes, that is, the "artistic events", carried out either by the artist or helpers and spectators, acting according to his plan, so called and self-work is an event or action . Happenings - a kind of plot elements from micro acts and theatrical props presence, or more abstract rhythmic, dynamic, or stable compositions. They always emphasized free "space game", which should experience the visual accomplice.
Performance – a form of visual art in the twentieth century, in which the product is any of the artist observed in real time. In contrast to the theater, usually in performance artist – the only author, performance is closer to poetry reading and performance of musical works and can be defined as a public gesture (physical, verbal, behavioral, social, etc.).
Performance is radically different from the classical works of art, but it can be accentuated with different reasons for this difference – time duration, provocation, sociality, the game aspect, so that performances can express completely different aesthetic program.
The main difference of a happening from a performance is that happening, as a rule, is involved in a theatrical effect, while the performance does not involve the participation of the viewer.
The purpose of theatrical street protest is to attract interest to the event from the public and the media. The creative design of protest action distinguishes theatrical protest from the classic picket at the same events.
Theatrical protest does not require the current legislation prior notice and may be claimed as a rally or vigil.
of theatrical protests taking place in several stages:
1. Nomination of ideas and creative concepts of the action.
2. Collection of potential participants. Discussion of the idea shares, determination of the date, time and place of meeting. Formation of a working group in order to prepare a stock distribution and organizational responsibilities among its members.
3. The organizational work for the preparation of the action: filing notice of the shares in a local authority, writing and sending out a press release, study the technical aspects.
4. Dress rehearsal of the event.
6. Collection of the protesters, the analysis of results and the results of the action.
1.5. "Breakthrough" event
"Breakthrough" campaign – a short time (instantaneous) dramatized the political action aimed at raising public and media attention to a particular public interest issue, which is to appear at a particular time and place of a number of political activists, producing pre-agreed actions with political overtones.
Usually "breakthrough" is the unauthorized action of this factor gives it the character of instantaneity and spontaneity. In addition, quite often the opposition organizations use technologies of "breakthrough" of shares in connection with the fact that there is need for rapid response to an event of political life, but you do not have the time to give notice to the authorities in accordance with applicable law .
can create the following general model of organized "disruptive"
1. Generate ideas campaign.
2. Defining an action plan, training and coaching of participants.
3. Alert the press (the announcement without specifying the nature and details of the event).
4. The appearance of a particular time and place of a number of political activists, producing pre-agreed actions.
5. After fixing the media "images" activists distributed over the planned route in advance so as not to be detained by the police.
6. At the site of the "disruptive" actions as a "speaker" (a person authorized to talk to the press) appears representative of the organization conducting the campaign, and gives the media the necessary comments and answers to questions.
1.6. Political flash mob
It should be noted that the "breakthrough" is often confused with stock political flash mob. This is a misconception. Moreover, experience shows that a flash mob does not find its use in political activity.
Flash mob (flash-mob) literally translates to English as "instant crowd." The essence of the flash mob is a momentary appearance in a certain place a certain number of people who act on a specific scenario, that is, perform certain procedures. In this case the main feature of the flash mob is that people who take part in it, do not know each other, and the script does not have a specific purpose (while the "breakthrough" shares have a very specific political goals).
In the development of the concept of "flash mob" has become more inclusive. In different countries, the phenomenon has acquired a special national color, of different ways warning, shares are either purely for entertainment purposes, or have special features: the artistic, social, etc.
Today, the term "flash mob" blur – largely thanks to interest from the media, political parties and producers of advertising - many stocks with large numbers of people and striking effect of erroneously referred to as "flash mob".
the following main features flash mob:
- people who take part in the event flash mob, mostly unfamiliar with each other, are not members of the public or political organization;
- the script flash mob do not have any specific purpose;
- a flash mob is designed primarily for people who are directly witnessed flash mob action, and is not intended as an end in itself in the emergence of media materials of the action;
- a surprise and spontaneity of the participants appears at the site of action.
Thus, it may be noted that the main features of the flash-mob contradict the logic of political protest, which features the following aspects:
- a political protest is held, as a rule, either by a specific political movement activists or supporters of certain political ideas;
- acts of political protest pursue very specific political goals and are held primarily to achieve these goals;
- acts of political protest aimed at the highest possible coverage of the audience (ie people who know that this action was carried out), and therefore calculated, in the first place, not to witness the action, and the members of the press;
- protests are planned in advance and, unlike the flash-mob, devoid of the effect of spontaneity (this applies even to "breakthrough" of the shares) as at the scene must be invited in advance by journalists.
1.7. Street PR-maneuver
Street PR-maneuver – an organization of protest actions in the framework of a mass event, conducted by political opponents. It should be noted that the technologies of PR-street maneuvers very widely used not only to counter opposition to the current regime, but on the contrary, the representatives of the pro-government agencies to discredit the actions of opposition organizations, as well as in the struggle between political parties competing for the same electoral niche. Organization of maneuver can pursue the following objectives:
- targeted to discredit the event against which organized maneuver, and thus discredit political opponents;
- to divert attention from the public and the media stated objectives and activities focusing on deliberately provoked scandal;
- fixation in the public mind of its own position on the political organization of mass events held by political opponents - the positioning of his own position as the most advantageous.
The most common (and very effective) method of purposeful activities to discredit political opponents is exaggerating the stated goals of the event, bringing them to the point of absurdity.
In the beginning of the year in readiness rating for revolutionary action, drawn up by the newspaper The Wall Street Journal, Ukraine was ranked 22nd out of 85countries. The most "revolutionary-dangerous" Americans called Kenya. The top ten included Cameroon, Pakistan, Nigeria, Indonesia, Philippines, Guatemala, Morocco, Jordan and Azerbaijan. Ukraine to protest sentiments also surpassed Vietnam, Libya, India, Uzbekistan, Egypt, Bolivia, Georgia, Turkmenistan, and Dominican Republic and Tunisia.