Автор: Пользователь скрыл имя, 27 Января 2013 в 13:07, реферат
Реферат на тему увеличения количества бездомных животных на улицах мегаполиса, и методами борьбы. на английском языке
Growing amount of homeless animals
Growing Amount of Homeless Animals
Academic Reading and Writing I
Professor: Karina Narimbetova
November 25, 2012
To observe in general main causes of growing population of homeless animals, relevance of this problem in our region. To figure out possible solutions for this problem, received from experience of another countries.
- Firstly I want to discuss list of causes of growing population of homeless animals, and find out, in what situations can face it.
Supporting idea 1: Why this problem became so actual nowadays?
Supporting idea 2: Main causes of appearing of the problem
- Secondly I want to discuss list of effects, what we can face in result of overpopulating of homeless animals.
- Finally I’ll try to find most profitable and actual solutions to this problem, trying to use examples of countries, which succeed in this question
The problem of stray animals is relevant, the reasons why this is happening and what methods of solutions exist. Due to growing amount of homeless animals, according to statistics of KARE (Kazakhstan Animal Rescue and Education), Kazakhstan government and society should take some measures to improve the situation. This problem is growing from day to day, and wrong to believe, that the problem is not actual. There is one of the situations, which can’t be controlled in Kazakhstan cities, and situation becoming more and more dangerous. Partially there is people’s responsibility; people need to help government to pay attention to this problem, and society task to point to the problem. Society so got used to this situation, that don’t pay any attention to it, but, if people focus more deeply to situation, they will see how many dangers lie in wait. Increasing population of homeless animals can be cause of big amount of dangerous diseases, which can be transferred by them. People can be attacked by pack of feral dogs, as rule homeless animals are more aggressive, than home pets. Eventually people became more callous, when trying not to see that, it’s not right. Task is not as complicated as it seems, there are a lot of solutions, which, can solve this problem, or ease it, as in any problem. In our modern world, there are a lot of services, which are serving to ease such problems as overpopulating of homeless animals, unfortunately not in Kazakhstan. This problem so complicated due to its novelty, but not everything so complicated, fortunately Kazakhstan can use experience of countries, which already faced this problem before and got a success in solving it.
Growing population of homeless animals gaining its relevance in Kazakhstan, due to report of KARE, it’s becoming an urgent problem of our country. There are some reasons, why Kazakhstan faced this problem. First of them is bad performance of animal trapping services. Its bad performance can be simply explained, due to our legislation, there are no terms about mistreatment of animals. Lack of motivation, to do their work well, because of trapping scheme. Trapping scheme is simple - City Town Hall announces a tender for catching stray animals. Contractor who won the tender are harvested, often using unprecedented violence. Animals are brought to detention centers. According to law of Kazakhstan: “Chapter 3. State veterinary and sanitary control and supervision” the animal must be kept in custody for 3 days so that in case of an error the owner was able to find a missing pet. In fact, the terms are often not met; animals are kept in small cages, without food, water and proper care, according to report of KARE. Also need to mention, that our services don’t obey to some rules, because it’s simply not exist. There are not special trained staff, lack of special technique, and the lack of finance. Finally this method is not useful, despite its apparent effectiveness. Trapping is neither humane nor effective method for controlling the number of stray animals. Dogs and cats are highly reproductive. According to statistics, the number of offspring from one dog for six years, in view of its descendants can theoretically reach 67 000 individuals, and the cats in 7 years - 420 000. The empty space is filled with new individuals. The liberated territory, where food supply and there is no competition, the animals begin to multiply actively.
The second reason is dumping pets, by their owners, the case is very common, when people don’t know, what to do with pet that became unnecessary and the simply kicking out animals to the street. What is the reason? And the reason is that people are taking a pet do not realize that impose new obligations, and when that realization comes, they just throw it on the street. Some of the animals find their new home on the street just because the owner became inconvenient to care for an aging or sick dog. Not to mention the unwanted offspring. Also in the list of reasons for the growing number of stray animals should be added and the activities of people who breed animals for profit.
Reproduction of homeless animals is one of the reasons of growing population of animals in the streets; the reason is an existence of useful conditions to reproduction, and absence of Spaying and Neutering. Meehan (2006) noted, that” Permanent sterilization has proven to be the most effective method of preventing animals from being born into a world that cannot provide for their needs. Slowing birth rates also reduces the strain on overburdened shelters, allowing them to keep animals longer instead of euthanizing them for lack of space. Fortunately, concerted efforts by shelters, legislators and animal advocates have made spaying and neutering much more widespread, available and affordable.” It seems the one of the most effective method of decreasing population of homeless animals.
Overpopulation of homeless animals can cause many problems, like spreading list of dangerous for human diseases; rabies disease, Anthrax, Brucellosis, Tuberculosis, Tularemia, Leptospirosis, Toxoplasmosis, Fascioliasis there are the most dangerous diseases, but not the full list, majority of them, can be lethal for human without vaccination or special cure. It can be transferred through different type of contact. Another reason, why government needs to struggle with this problem, there is probability to be attacked by animals. People often fear of aggression from these wild with hunger, cold, and cruel treatment of stray dogs. It’s quite reasonable, because according to KARE there are a lot of cases, when people were attacked by packs of stray dogs. According to Occupy for animals, “Europe homeless animals”.
Every time there is a problem, there is a solution; this case is not an exception. Firstly we need to fix our legislation. Legislation - at this point in Kazakhstan there is no legal framework on domesticated animals. Also there are no mechanisms to monitor organizations that conduct activities for animal production. To make an obligation to register all animals. Registration - Creating a single database to register animals with the ability to pass at several points around the city. Sounds good, but this solution very expensive, due to necessity of creation totally new type of bureaucracy; Vaccination and sterilization - vaccination should be subject to all the animals. Sterilizing your pet, you can contribute to reducing the number of stray animals. One of the best and effective solutions, but not popular due to some inhumanity of it; Control of access to resources - timely removal of litter and fencing territory, will help to avoid stray animals in places where they are undesirable (kindergartens, hospitals, schools). Seems to be impossible, because polluted streets of our cities causing a lot of problems besides overpopulation of animals, but the aim haven’t achieved yet; Education - education of humane treatment of animals, education in the field of animal care. Due to Kazakhstan Animal Rescue and Education fund, if these points will be observed, amount of homeless animals can be decreased. The most feasible solution of this problem is to make people more responsible for their animals, the best way to achieve that, to make appropriate amendments in Kazakhstan law against violators.
In my opinion, decreasing amount of homeless animals is quite solvable problem for Kazakhstan and local government. I agree that its unknown problem for this society, but it’s growing and better that it will be solved until it reached its peak. It’s better to solve it in its beginning. I believe, that it will be enough to point to this problem, in order to achieve to some improvements, because this problem is not so obvious, people do not notice it, because they so accustomed to problem, that adapted not to see it.
Meehan, “Spay Day USA helps slow pet population; First-time event to allow financially strapped owners to spay, neuter pets,” South Bend Tribune 2006.
KARE Fund (Kazakhstan Animal Rescue and Education fund). Homeless Animals. 2008-2012.
Idausa, Spaying and Neutering: A Humane Solution
to Animal Companion Overpopulation, retrieved 2007, from http://www.idausa.org/facts/
Kelly Benjamin N. Gedan, Pay, neuter cat bill passes House, goes to governor's desk, The Providence Journal 2006.
Occupy for animals, Europe homeless animals. Retrieved
July 4 2012, from http://www.occupyforanimals.