Development of software application for logistics manager

Автор: Пользователь скрыл имя, 30 Мая 2013 в 07:45, реферат

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Now more and more companies require reception of the operative information depending on demanded conditions on a certain instant. Thus the information should be received as soon as possible with the minimum expenses of money resources, with maximum metrics of reliability, accuracy and objectivity. Connected with this operations in logistics sphere did not become an exception.
The logistics is an optimal control of the commodity-material streams followed from the supplier to the consumer and linked to them by informational, financial and service streams on the basis of a system approach for the purpose of abbreviation of time and costs in a chain of deliveries of the goods.

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Now more and more companies require reception of the operative information depending on demanded conditions on a certain instant. Thus the information should be received as soon as possible with the minimum expenses of money resources, with maximum metrics of reliability, accuracy and objectivity. Connected with this operations in logistics sphere did not become an exception.

The logistics is an optimal control of the commodity-material streams followed from the supplier to the consumer and linked to them by informational, financial and service streams on the basis of a system approach for the purpose of abbreviation of time and costs in a chain of deliveries of the goods.

Nowadays, there are several types of logistics. Here are some of them: transportation logistics, procurement and production logistics, warehouse logistics, business logistics, information and marketing logistics, industrial logistics and distribution logistics. The majority of the types of logistics intersect. This is a case in point is the definition of the tasks of transport logistics, whose main tasks is to ensure cargo, minimizing the cost of shipping, searching for optimal routes of goods, searching and selection of forwarders, coordination of other issues with the sender and the recipient of the goods. Transport logistics is different from the transportation that freight forwarding is the result of logistics, namely choosing the most favorable option in terms of time and cost of the route, mode of transport and their combinations. Transport logistics binds the many stages of freight forwarding.

At the basis of control process of the material flows lies information processing, which is circulating in logistics systems. In this connection one of key concepts of logistics is the concept of an informational stream. The choice of vehicle type, the joint planning of transport processes, the joint route planning, joint planning of travel time along the route - all of this are information flows, by good governance them directly depends of the effectiveness of materials management.

The rules of logistics

Activity in the field of logistics has the final goal, which was called name “six rules of logistics”.

1. Cargo (the necessary goods).

2. Quality (necessary quality).

3. Quantity (in necessary quantity).

4. Time (should be supplied in due time).

5. A place (in a proper place).

6. Expenses (with the minimum expenses).

The purpose of logistics activity is considered reached if these six conditions are fulfilled, i.e. the necessary goods of necessary quality, in necessary quantity are supplied in due time, in a proper place with the minimum expenses.


Contemporary development logistics underwent, in essence, because of appearance and development of the transmission media and data processing, there is demand for the applications for the logistics, the actuality of the need of the automation of logistic operations does not leave doubt.

Under the contemporary conditions for the development of economy for the enterprises of Kazakhstan urgent need to focus serious attention on the optimization of its activity appears, since the principles of the market economy take root into of increasing degree in the country, competition is strengthened.  In this context the special importance acquires the creation of the systems, which make it possible to increase the effectiveness of control of material flows, which improves entire economic activity. As a whole, this problem can be defined as the formation of the competitive advantages through the reduction of logistic expenses and an improvement in the quality of maintenance on the basis of the creation of effectively functioning logistic systems.

The subject actuality is also defined: an increasing role which is played by logistics in economic activities in the conditions of market economy; problems of integration of Kazakhstan in a global logistics infrastructure and its adapting to standards and the requirements operating in the developed countries; necessity of application of modern technologies and economic mechanisms of creation and development. The research actuality is defined as well by that attention which is given by Government RK to questions of development of a logistics infrastructure and its interaction with the international logistics environment.

The purpose of diploma work

The main purpose of diploma project is - to make better transportation, automation of logistics operations in depots associated with the control of the route and time. Experience shows that because of the irrational planned routes and lack of control the location of transport companies transport costs are increased by 20-40%. Inefficient logistics management results in excessive mileage and fuel consumption, less than optimal use of fleet vehicles and simple, and the lack of funds leads to a diversion of transport, fuel drain, non-compliance with the conditions of transport drivers. And so today, in the fleets it is necessary to automate logistics processes. In particular the need to develop a software application that allows you to control the route and time of a particular bus. The development program will be implemented in JavaScript.


To the basic results, obtained in the diploma work and which constitute the scientific novelty of a study, relates the following:

- defined requirements for the structure and function of modern logistics information systems allowing for the business organization;

- developed a procedure for choosing the most effective way to automate the management of the logistics company based on the analysis of business processes, information systems.

-Implement a software application, to select an effective way to control routing, time and resources to optimize cost.

The practical value of the work lies in the opportunities of practical use of methods and recommendations for the development of information systems in logistics. The use of the program will enhance the efficiency of logistics systems in the company.

Methods for the problem solution

Development of software applications for logistics solutions will reduce labor


costs and saving money before officers standing at bus stops, watching the time, can use this time to work more effectively.

Disadvantages of paper conducting operations:

  1. Loss of productivity in connection with search of necessary remarks to working off;
  2. Copying and storage of remarks for the purpose of an archiving;
  3. Cumulative influence on a total cost and the quality of tools given to clients.

Advantages of operation with electronic system:

  1. Automation access of clients to a database;
  2. Simple and safe digital archiving of the data;
  3. Reduction of necessity for physical space of storage of documents at the expense of usage of digital storages;
  4. Cumulative useful result of reduction of cost and more effective servicing;
  5. the ability to monitor the bus directly from the bus park, which does not allow bus drivers to deceive the authorities.

The basic results of studies in the process of the work on the diploma project are published in [2].

Structure of diploma project.

Diploma project consists of the following main sections: introduction, designing section, experimental research section, technological section, conclusion, bibliography and applications.

In introduction part is proved importance and an urgency of the selected subject, is formulated the purpose of the diploma project, and also offered the short characteristic of development of logistics.

In design section of the project are parsed necessary requirements at a design stage, is resulted the substantiation of development tools and defined the methodology of solution of the task.

In experimentally-research section is directly described system development, a physical design of the application, and also UML diagrams.

Technological section contains results of operation of the application, testing and the description of operation in Software application.

In the conclusion are resulted the main theoretical and practical results of the diploma project

The literature list consists of 18 sources. 

Appendixes contains: user interface windows, codes of programs























1. Design section

1.1 Information systems in logistic

An informative thread is an aggregate of circulatory in the logistic system, between the logistic system and external environment of reports, necessary for a management and control of logistic operations. An informative thread can exist as paper and electronic documents.

It is necessary to mean, that besides logistic operations another operations, similarly attended with an origin and transmission of threads of information, are carried out in the economic systems. However logistic informative threads(stream) make the most meaningful part of the combined stream of information.

Similarly as well as any other system, the informative system must consist of well-organized associate elements and possess some aggregate of integrative internals. Decoupling of the informative systems on making elements it is possible to carry out variously. Most often the informative systems are subdivided into two subsystems: functional and providing (figure 1).


Figure 1. Information subsystems

The functional subsystem consists of a collection of the solved tasks grouped on the basis of a generality of the purpose. The providing subsystem, in turn, includes following units:

- A hardware, aggregate of hardware, providing treatment and transmission of informational threads;

- A supply with information which includes various directories, qualifiers, coders, means of the formalized description of the data;

- A software, i.e. set of methods of the decision of functional problems. Logistical information systems, as a rule, represent the automated control systems of logistical processes. Therefore the software in logistical information systems is a complex of programs and set of means of the programming providing the decision of problems of management by material streams, processing of texts, reception of the help data and functioning of means.

At microlevel distinguish the following three kinds of information systems:

1. Planned information systems – are created at administrative level of management for acceptance of long-term decisions: creation and optimization of links of a logistical chain; manufacture planning; the general storekeeping; management of reserves, etc.

2. Non-mandatory, or dispatching offices IS - created at the level of management storage or workshop for providing of the debugged work of logistical system, for making decision on medium-term and long-term prospects: disposing of intra-depot or inside factory transport; selection of loads on orders and their completing; account of the sent loads; detailed control of inventories.

3. Executive IS –  are created at level of administrative or an operational administration for execution of daily affairs in a mode of real time; an operational administration manufacture service; management of moving, etc.

Tasks, relating the logistic systems, decide in the planned information systems. Through planning in a chain "sale-manufacture-supply" that allows creating effective system of the organization of the manufacture, constructed on market requirements, with delivery of necessary requirements in system of material support of the enterprise is thus carried out. By planned systems as though "get involved" logistical system in an environment, in a cumulative material stream.

The non-mandatory and executive systems go into detail drawn up plans and provide their implementation on separate productive areas, in storages, and also on concrete workplaces.

Vertical and horizontal integration of information systems.

According to the conception of logistic the informative systems, related to the different groups, are integrated in single IS. Distinguish vertical and horizontal integration. Vertical integration connection is considered between planned, non-mandatory and executive the systems by means of vertical informative threads.


1.1.1 Essence, structure and functions of informational logistics system

The logistics information system fulfils a number of specific functions:

1) planning

2) coordination

3) service

4) management

At the basis of the functional pyramid of logistic information system lies the system of the operations between the components of logistic system, which determines interrelations between the functional subdivisions of firm (in the plan of the realization of logistic functions), by logistic mediators and by the users of the production of firm. At the level of analysis the logistic regional or administrative managers of firm in essence use information for tactical purposes for marketing, prognostications of financial and operating production indices. Finally, at the upper strategic level logistics determines strategy of management and it is connected with the strategic corporate planning and the mission of firm.

The characteristics of the system levels of the functional structure of logistic information system are connected with achieving of the specific strategic and tactical goals of firm and competitive advantages.

The organizational structure of logistic information system can be coarsely formed of four subsystems: administration of the procedures of orders, scientific studies and connection, support of the logistic solutions and generation of output forms and reports. These interconnected subsystems achieve information- computer support of all functions of logistic management and connection with the micro- and macro-logistic environment.

In the organizational structure of logistic information system as one of the basic subsystems is isolated the subsystem of control of the procedures of orders, which is caused by the direct contact of this subsystem with the users in the processes of working and fulfilling the orders. Great significance here has a use of a concept “of electron exchange by data”  and the based on it standards.

The subsystem of scientific studies and connection reflects the influence of the external and internal medium of firm on the process of logistic management and is accomplished interaction between the components of logistic system and the control functions due to:

• the integration of logistic planning with the corporate planning;

• interaction of logistic management with other corporate functions;

• strategic installations for the organizational structure of logistic system and personnel;

• the integration of information technologies;

• preparation or the purchase of the technological solutions and use of mediators;

• adaptation to the conditions of the firm of the forms of logistic chains, channels and networks, and also of control functions;

• accentuation on productivity and quality of services in the logistics.

The subsystem in question plays important role for the reflection of changes and requirements both of the external and internal medium of firm. Logistic manager can use this subsystem for scanning of micro- and macro-media of firm four by methods:

1) by indirect examination on the basis of the total analysis of the obtained information, when there is no specific assigned purpose;

2) by the direct examination, when information about the external and internal medium of firm actively is analyzed with the previously formulated purpose;

3) by a nonformal study of relatively limited and unstructured data;

4) by a formal study with the use of the previously comprised plan, procedures and methods of working and analysis of obtained information.

For the optimization of the results of evaluating the influence of the external and internal medium of firm on the behavior of logistic system logistic manager must use key information sources of subsystem in the process of monitoring. It is here necessary to consider two aspects. First, the use of information by personnel of firm for the estimation of the effectiveness of its logistic solutions. For example, bookkeeping information or information about the prices of the finished production of competitors can give irrefragable answer about the effectiveness of management; information about the sizes of cargo sending can be used by the transport subdivisions of firm and T. d. In the second place, the logistic partners of firm, such, as the suppliers of material resources, commercial mediators, ferrymen and users of finished production also can use information of subsystem for an improvement in coordination and reduction in our own expenditures. Important place in the subsystem in question belongs to prognostication, in particular, to such aspects as the collection of initial information, the estimation of accuracy, authenticity, use of the most effective methods of prognostication.

The third component of a logistics information system is the subsystem of support of logistics solutions which represents the interactive computer information system including databases and analytical models, the optimization tasks realizing, as a rule, arising in the course of logistics management. The subsystem forms, refreshes and supports variously structured, centralized and distributed databases for four main types of files:

• the basic files containing the external and internal information, necessary for acceptance of logistics solutions;

° the critical factors defining the main operations, the purposes and limitations at decision-making;

• the politicians/parameters containing the main logistics operational procedures for key areas;

• files of the solutions storing the information on the previous (periodic) solutions for various logistics functions.

In the given subsystem the great number of economic-mathematical models and methods (in particular, predictions for support of the solutions accepted by logistics management) is used. All these models and methods can be divided into classes: optimization, heuristic and imitative. Optimization models of decision-making are grounded on operational calculus methods: programming (linear, nonlinear, dynamic, stochastic, integer), the mathematical statistics (correlatively-regression analysis, the theory of stochastic processes, the identification theory, the theory of statistical models of decision-making, etc.), calculus of variations, optimum control, queuing theory, counts, schedules etc. In particular, for various logistics functions it is possible to specify following tasks:

• optimal dispatching in production, transportation, cargo handling;

• the optimal allocation of objects in the production, the distribution, the storing;

• the construction of optimum logistic chains, channels, networks;

• the construction of the optimum organizational structure of logistic system;

• optimum routing;

• the determination of the optimum duration of the components of logistic cycles;

• the optimization of the procedures of collection, working and of fulfilling the orders;

• the optimization of the parameters of control systems of reserves;

• an optimal choice of a carrier, the forwarding agent, the supplier etc.

In a considered subsystem interactive (dialogue) procedures of informational support of decision-making by logistics management are widely applied.

The fourth unit of organizational structure of a logistics intelligence system - a subsystem of generating of output forms and reports ".

The system of information input in the logistics for fulfilling the functions enumerated above must be correspondingly organized. The specific character of this system lies in the fact that in the process of its activity it must have the capability to exert influence on all functional subsystems of logistic organization. Three methods of its organization are based on this possible: centralized, decentralized and specialized.

With the centralized method of organization the activity in the information input is concentrated in one control (subdivision) and is subordinated to the directly highest leadership of organization through the Vice President (deputy director) for the information systems (technologies). The guarantee of a high efficiency in the works on the introduction of new information systems and technologies is the advantage of this method of organization. To the deficiencies can be attributed high expenditures for the content of administrative apparatus.

With the decentralized method of organizing the subsystem of information input the specialists of different functional subdivisions fulfill control functions of information traffics in their subject area. The high standard of knowledge of the subject area of manager along the information systems is the advantage of this method of organization, by deficiency - duplicating uniform tasks and functions in the different subdivisions of organization.

At a specialized way in the organization there are no divisions on intelligence systems (technologies). In need of development and implantation of a new intelligence system the given organizations access in specialized corporations and perform operations on a contractual basis (outsourcing).

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