Рефераты по иностранным языкам

History of Roman Law

03 Апреля 2013, реферат

The characteristic of the earlier Roman law was its extreme formalism. From its first secret administration as the law of the privileged classes it expanded until it became the basis of all civilized legal systems. The Roman law in its maturity recognized a definite natural-law theory as the ultimate test of the reasonableness of positive law, and repudiated the concept that justice is the creature of positive law. Cicero (De leg., I, v) tells us "Nos ad justitiam esse natos, neque opinione sed natura constitutum esse jus" (i.e. Justice is natural, not the effect of opinion).

History of team building

25 Ноября 2011, доклад

A team is a small number of people with additional (добавочный) skills who are committed (преданные) to a common purpose, performance (исполнение) goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable (подход, для которого они считают себя взаимно ответственными.).

History of Telecommunications

23 Мая 2013, практическая работа

History of Telecommunications
Communicating over long distances has been a challenge throughout history. In ancient times, runners were used to carry important between messages rulers or other important people. Other forms of long-distance communication included smoke signals, chains of searchlights and flags to send a message from one tower to another, carrier pigeons, and horses. Modern

History of the English Language

07 Февраля 2013, творческая работа

The history of the English language really started with the arrival of three Germanic tribes who invaded Britain during the 5th century AD. These tribes, the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes, crossed the North Sea from what today is Denmark and northern Germany.
At that time the inhabitants of Britain spoke a Celtic language. But most of the Celtic speakers were pushed west and north by the invaders - mainly into what is now Wales, Scotland and Ireland. The Angles came from Englaland and their language was called Englisc - from which the words England and English are derived.

Holidays and traditions

24 Марта 2011, реферат

Commitment to British tradition is evident not only in politics, but at every step, in itself that neither is an ordinary life. Britons against all logic and common sense, adhere to its system of weights and measures (in a pub - English pub - you will always be served a pint, and not pint! Beer), traffic systems, traditions in food (English breakfast is very different from the so-called continental breakfast - a cup coffee and bread with jam - its reliability and thoroughness).

Holidays in Great Britain

26 Марта 2013, реферат

Every nation and every country has its own traditions and customs. And people from different countries celebrate their holidays with a great pleasure. There are a lot of different holidays and customs in every country. But there are some holidays, which are the most widely celebrated in the world. The most popular international holidays are Christmas day, New Year’s Day, St. Valentine’s Day, Mother’s Day, Easter and Independence Day (which is celebrated in all countries on different days, because every state has its day, when it’s Independence was proclaimed).

Holidays in Great Britain

26 Февраля 2013, реферат

I have chosen the topic British customs traditions because I enjoy
learning the English language and wanted to know more about British ways of
life and traditions. Working on this topic I have to conclusion that British people are very conservative. They are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them up. It was interesting to know that foreigners coming to England are stuck at once by quite a number of customs and peculiarities.
So I think of Britain as a place a lot of different types of people
who observe their traditions.

Holidays in kz

15 Марта 2012, реферат

Some public holidays have remained in the Republic of Kazakhstan since the Soviet Union time. These are the New Year's Day on January 1-2, the International Women's Day on March 8, and the Victory Day on May 9.
On the Victory Day many residents of the city of Almaty, among them are not only the war and labour veterans but also young people, come to lay flowers at the Eternal Flame in the park named after 28 guardsmen "Panfilovetsi", who heroically perished on November 16, 1941 near the crossing point Dubosekovo while defending the city of Moscow.

Horrible condition

14 Декабря 2011, доклад

Horrible condition of nowadays ecosystem is one of the most topical global problems. A human has spent almost 2 millions of years, fighting for survival against powers of nature and hundreds of creatures… Now he has been being the master of the planet for almost 300 years, and he has already managed to put the Earth on the verge of doomsday.

Hotel and restaurant industry

19 Октября 2012, шпаргалка

Несколько важных слов и фраз, для студентов гостиничной индустрии

House of my dream

18 Декабря 2011, творческая работа

The description what will be the dream house, internal furniture, its design. A garden round the house and a flower bed.

How Did I Spend My Summer Holidays

10 Февраля 2013, лекция

After each term in school we had our holidays. It's fun to have holidays, you can do whatever you like, you don't have to get up too early, do your homework or think of troubles which occur very often at school. Most of all I liked summer holidays, they were the longest ones, though, when winter was snowy and and frosty, I enjoyed my winter holidays skating and skiing, sledging and making a snowman or having a fight with snowballs.

How to Build a Better Business with Outsourcing

21 Декабря 2012, лекция

When Laura Lee Sparks left her job as a law firm manager to launch her own business, she knew from the beginning that there were certain tasks she didn't want to handle. The owner of Legal Marketing Maven--a firm that helps law firms streamline their practices through outsourcing--Sparks practiced what she preached from the start, hiring an outside bookkeeper and slowly adding to her virtual team of contractors. Within months, her business revenues reached six figures.

How to Protect Our Planet?

14 Января 2011, доклад

The first step is to learn about environmental problems. The cause of many problems is pollution. Plants and factories which produce things we need also pollute the air with poisonous gases, such as carbon dioxide. They also produce gases and substances which destroy the ozone layer of the atmosphere. It is dangerous, because this ozone layer protects the Earth from the space radiation. We can help keep this ozone layer, if we use ozone-friendly substances and sprays.

How to teach speaking

13 Октября 2013, статья

Speaking is the most vital part of human’s life. Speaking is the most basic medium of communication by humans and it is the only way for living and differentiation people from monkeys. Speaking fluently requires long practice, paying a lot of attention to pronunciation and spending a lot of hardworking time. Everyone knows, if you want to be a good speaker of foreign language, first of all, you need to be good at pronunciation and you have to try to speak as a native speaker. Teaching speaking is a great dilemma, as the ways of teaching are not improved enough, they are old and as the matter of fact it is not effective. Now I want to tell my offers for teaching speaking, I hope that they will help anyone to improve these skills.


10 Февраля 2013, реферат

Hydroelectricity is electricity generated by hydropower, i.e., the production of power through use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy. Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, the project produces no direct waste, and has a considerably lower output level of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) than fossil fuel powered energy plants. Worldwide, hydroelectricity supplied an estimated 715,000 MWe in 2005. This was approximately 19% of the world's electricity (up from 16% in 2003), and accounted for over 63% of electricity from renewable sources.

Ibn Battuta (d. 1368) a traveler from Morocco

01 Марта 2013, реферат

The great Muslim traveller Ibn Battuta also known as Shams ad-Din was born on 25th of Feburary in 1304 (the exact year of death depends from source to source 1304–1368 or 1369 year) during the Marinid dynasty era in the family of Muslim legal scholars in Tangier in Morocco. According to the family business and social valuables of an early 14th century he studied law at an Islamic jurisprudence school called Sunni Maliki madh'hab. Although respectable educational opportunities Ibn Battuta, at the age of twenty one, on Thursday, 14th June, 1325 left his hometown on purpose to start his pilgrimage to Mecca. It took him six month to reach his first destination, whereas left Morocco for more than twenty-four years. (Byrne)

IKEA communication policy: Advertising

24 Ноября 2011, реферат

IKEA is multinational company, which offers a wide range of well-designed, functional home furnishing products at prices so low that as many people as possible will be able to afford them. This is the idea at the heart of everything IKEA does, from product development and purchases to how they sell products in IKEA stores globally.

Improving Intercultural Communication

14 Марта 2012, реферат

Intercultural communication principles guide the process of exchanging meaningful and unambiguous information across cultural boundaries, in a way that preserves mutual respect and minimises antagonism. For these purposes, culture is a shared system of symbols, beliefs, attitudes, values, expectations, and norms of behaviour. It refers to coherent groups of people whether resident wholly or partly within state territories, or existing without residence in any particular territory. Hence, these principles may have equal relevance when a tourist seeks help, where two well-established independent corporations attempt to merge their operations, and where politicians attempt to negotiate world peace. Two factors have raised the importance of this topic:

Independent Work

06 Марта 2013, контрольная работа

Synonyms to the word Beautiful : gracious, good-looking, gorgeous, stately, elegant, excellent, wonderful, adorable, slender, pleasant, attractive
gracious – Full of grace, slender. behaving in a pleasant, polite, calm
good-looking - describes a physically attractive man or woman
gorgeous - very beautiful or pleasant

Independent Work

26 Февраля 2013, контрольная работа

Revise the use of the Infinitive, Gerund, Participle I and Participle II.
Read the texts on Law according to your syllabus.

Independent Work

03 Марта 2013, контрольная работа

Read the texts from the book “English for Public Administration Students”
What is Public Administration?
Business Management and Public Administration.
Theory of Public Administration.
Public Administration Personnel: Role Types.

Interesting facts from the history of the Olympic Games

21 Ноября 2010, реферат

Интересные факты из истории олимпийских игр.

Internal combustion engine

05 Апреля 2012, реферат

The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel (normally a fossil fuel) occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber. In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the high-temperature and -pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine, such as pistons, turbine blades, or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, generating useful mechanical energy.

International Business Student Collaboration Project

23 Апреля 2013, реферат

The Walt Disney Company is a worldwide known family entertainment enterprise. As a parent company, the Disney Family Fitness Center will provide top of the line fitness facility while maintaining the Disney image. The Disney Family Fitness Center will provide families with a fun way to workout. The target market for this facility will be middle and upper class families with children between the ages of 3 to 16. The facility will be located in San Antonio, Texas. The motivation for choosing this city is documented in section 4.2. The Walt Disney Company will have the most success joining a new business market by taking a direct investment entry.

International environmental organizations: Greenpeace

07 Декабря 2011, реферат

Greenpeace is an independent global campaigning organisation that acts to change attitudes and behaviour, to protect and conserve the environment and to promote peace by:
Catalysing an energy revolution to address the number one threat facing our planet: climate change.
Defending our oceans by challenging wasteful and destructive fishing, and creating a global network of marine reserves.
Protecting the world's ancient forests and the animals, plants and people that depend on them.

International standarts of customs control

13 Марта 2012, реферат

All goods, including vehicles imported into the customs territory or leaving it, regardless of whether they are subject to customs duties and taxes are subject to customs control. Customs control shall be limited to the minimum necessary to ensure compliance with customs legislation.

International tourism; number of departures in Honduras

07 Ноября 2011, реферат

The International tourism; number of departures in Honduras was reported at 387000.00 in 2008, according to the World Bank. International outbound tourists are the number of departures that people make from their country of usual residence to any other country for any purpose other than a remunerated activity in the country visited. The data on outbound tourists refer to the number of departures, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips from a country during a given period is counted each time as a new departure.This page includes a historical data chart, news and forecats for International tourism; number of departures in Honduras. Honduras is one of the poorest countries in Central America.


10 Февраля 2013, реферат

In the beginning of the 21 century the artistic life in Belarus is becoming more dynamic and varied. Exhibitions are becoming increasingly popular; joint exhibitions featuring Belarusian and foreign artists are being held often; art-design, photo art and computer graphics, as well as other types of artistic expression, are all on the rise now.

Introduction. The General concept of style

01 Апреля 2013, курс лекций

It is no news that any propositional content, any idea can be verbalized in several different ways. So “May I offer you a chair?”, “Take a seat, please”, “Sit down” have the same proposition (subject-matter) but differ in the manner of expression, which in its turn, depends on the situational conditions of the communication act. So, the same thought, idea, opinion can be expressed in more than one way. For example: a) King Charles was publicly decapitated. (Bookish or literary style); b) King Charles was publicly beheaded (neutral style); c) They chopped off King Charles’s head in the sight of anyone who cared to see it done (colloquial style).