Рефераты по иностранным языкам

Expression of surprise in modern English

19 Октября 2011, курсовая работа

The interpretation of human’s emotional states and feelings, as a special form of the reflection of reality, is generally adopted. There is a great number of the shades of these states. Unfortunately, language doesn’t have enough number of words to transmit all possible shades of these feelings. Exploration of emotional speech is an actual and insufficiently studied problem in contemporary linguistics. The great number of different opinions about including emotionality into the sphere of linguistic analysis, the absence of systemic description of its characteristics explain such situation.

Famous athletes of Kazakhstan

26 Февраля 2013, доклад

Dmitriy Karpov is a distinguished decathlete, taking bronze in both the 2004 Summer Olympics, and the 2003 and 2007 World Athletics Championships. Olga Rypakova is an athlete, specialized in Triple Jump (women's), taking silver in the 2011 World Championships in Athletics.

Fasching in der Ukraine

15 Февраля 2013, реферат

Fastenzeit ist die letzte Woche vor den großen Fasten. Am ersten Tag der Fastenzeit isst man nach dem alten Brauch Sulze aus Schweinefleisch. Mädchen vom Tisch Knochenreste, gehen in den Hof und werfen sie ins Tor. Dem alten Glauben nach wird derjenige das Ostern nicht erleben, der diese Knochen nicht direkt ins Tor wirft. Die verheirateten Frauen veranstalten die ganze Woche ein sogenanntes Fest den “Klotze”. Am Montag kommen sie in einer Schenke zusammen. Eine Ehefrau leg

Fears and dreads (Страх и ужас)

05 Ноября 2012, реферат

О спутниках Марса на английском языке. An enquirer of the newsgroup alt.usage.english recently asked for the word that described an irrational fear of dogs. In such circumstances, a word ending in phobia is bound to be appropriate, because this is now the standard term for any extreme aversion, irrational fear or dread. After searching my sources for examples of the appropriate word, curiosity led me to look into similar terms.
It is so strongly associated with modern psychiatry and pop-psychology that it is a little surprising to discover that as a word in its own right phobia dates back as far as 1786. Its source is the Greek word meaning “fear; horror”, which also turns up in a closely-related form in the name of one of the two moons of Mars, Phobos, so called in 1877 by its discoverer, the American Asaph Hall, after one of the two horses that in legend pulled the war chariot of the Greek god of war (the other being Deimos, “panic”, which name he gave to the other moon)

Ferdinand Tönnies

05 Марта 2013, контрольная работа

Ferdinand Tönnies was born on July 26, 1855, He pioneered sociology as an academic discipline of rigorously scientific character on a broad base of original studies in the history of ideas, epistemology, political science, economics, and social anthropology. After studying classics at different German universities and taking his doctoral degree in 1877, Tönnies turned to philosophy, history, biology, psychology, economics, and ethnology as his ideas on scientific sociology began to take shape.

Few New Jobs as Jobless Rate Rises to 9.8%

27 Ноября 2011, статья

After several months of improvement, hiring by businesses slowed to a crawl in November, a development that is sure to intensify the debate over what can and should be done to reignite the economy. The United States added a total of just 39,000 jobs last month, down from an upwardly revised gain of 172,000 in October, the Labor Department reported on Friday. With local governments shedding jobs, the additions in the private sector were too small to reduce the ranks of the unemployed or even to keep pace with people entering the work force.

Fiber reinforced concrete

10 Февраля 2011, реферат

The author gratefully acknowledges all the help and assistance extended by Prof. M. di Prisco, who exhibited a great deal of patience as the writing of this thesis progressed. The expertise provided by Dr. M. di Prisco was invaluable. Sincere appreciation is also expressed for both the teaching and research assistantships provided during my Master’s program.

Financial system of the United States of America

02 Марта 2013, реферат

The financial system is the system that allows the transfer of money between savers (and investors) and borrowers. A financial system can operate on a global, regional or firm specific level. Gurusamy, writing in Financial Services and Systems has described it as comprising "a set of complex and closely interconnected financial institutions, markets, instruments, services, practices, and transactions."


19 Февраля 2013, реферат

Finanses – visu naudas līdzekļu kopums, kas pieder valstij, uzņēmumiem, jebkurai fiziskas/juridiskas personas izmanto ierobežotos resursus, laika gaitā. Kā arī finanses ir mācība par naudas resursu izvietošanu laikā. 1Ir divas galvenās iezīmes, kas atšķir finansu lēmumus no citiem resursu izvietošanas lēmumiem, proti, finansu lēmumu izmaksas un ienākumi ir:
· izstiepti laikā (ieguldījuma efektivitāti varēs novērtēt tikai pēc ieguldījuma perioda beigām);

Fiona Sampson

28 Марта 2013, биография

Sampson has published fifteen books, including works of poetry, volumes on the philosophy of language and on the writing process. Her poetry has been published and broadcast in more than thirty languages and her many translations include the work of Jaan Kaplinski. She contributes to The Guardian, The Irish Times The Independent, the Times Literary Supplement and the "Sunday Times". She advises internationally on creative writing in healthcare. She was the founder-director of Poetryfest - the Aberystwyth International Poetry Festival and the founding editor of Orient Express, a journal of contemporary writing from Europe. Sampson's work is held online, in text and audio, at The Poetry Archive.

Five national foods (dishes)

27 Марта 2012, творческая работа

In the report I will tell to you, about national foods of Italy. The Italian kitchen interesting, due to originality, lightness of preparation, by interesting combinations of paste, marine products, vegetables and sharp seasonings.
The Italian kitchen is a founder of high culinary art. The aroma of the Italian kitchen will not entangle not with that other. He is filled with the aroma of gifts of Mediterranean - marine products, aromas of herbares and pleasure of garden-stuffs that ripened on the spaces inundated by a sun.


14 Февраля 2013, доклад

Catastrophic flooding - a hydrodynamic evil that results from the destruction of artificial or natural dam and flooding is rapid wave break located below ground and the occurrence of floods.
Catastrophic flooding is characterized by the following parameters:
- The maximum possible height and speed of the wave breaking;
- calculation time coming crest and wave front breakthrough in the correspondin


10 Октября 2011, доклад

Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census conducted by United States Census Bureau, it is the fourth most populated state in the country.

Focus on Rendering and Translation

05 Января 2011, контрольная работа

1. Translate into English
2. Render the following articles into English

Food and drinks in the USA

11 Февраля 2013, реферат

Dinner is considered the main meal of the day, usually served after 5:00 p.m but before 10:30. Breakfast and lunch are usually light and rushed during weekdays, but during the weekends or special occasions, breakfast can be a much more elaborate meal consisting of cereal, eggs, toast, pancakes, coffee, and fruit juice. Lunch is usually served around noon, and an American lunch menu almost always includes sandwiches, soups, french fries and more. Full desserts (sometimes called "pudding" elsewhere) are typically only served after dinner, and become more elaborate for special occasions.

Footballers Do Not Deserve The High Salaries They Command

29 Ноября 2011, контрольная работа

Many people think that footballers are paid too much money for doing too little effort. However, this can be argued because they are people who have dedicated their entire life to this sport and therefore they should be rewarded. This leads us to the question: Do footballers deserve high salaries? Firstly, some famous footballers are paid huge amounts of money such as Ronaldo who are

Foreign Languages In The Modern World

23 Декабря 2011, доклад

Each language – the basis of an infinitely rich culture, one of the main values of the people. Word – this is the first that he heard a child is born, something that will accompany him throughout his life. Native language, of course, the only one. Most beautiful and sweet heart, the most expensive. But there are others, too wonderful and unique to the study which aims to be a man.

French borrowings in the modern english language

16 Января 2011, реферат

We live in Belarus and our native language is Belarusian .
Almost all the words are native in our language . But some of them are borrowed from other la
n guages, though they got their meanings, spelling, according to the Belarusian la
n guage .

Function of Financial Management

23 Января 2012, реферат

Ever since 1494 when a monk of Italian origin, Lucas Pacioli wrote the first book on modern accounting, financial management has grown to become the key to corporate growth. Financial management can be simply termed as efficient management of finances of a business/organization in order to achieve financial objectives

Functional Styles of the English Language

25 Марта 2011, реферат

Functional styles (FS) are the subsystems of language, each subsystem having its own peculiar features in what concern vocabulary means, syntactical constructions, and even phonetics. The appearance and existence of FS is connected with the specific conditions of communication in different spheres of human life. FS differ not only by the possibility or impossibility of using some elements but also due to the frequency of their usage.

Functions of Management

09 Апреля 2012, реферат

The present paper is devoted to the problems of management. This work is aimed at analysis of four functions of management. The following tasks are to be solved in this paper:
- to decide how much functions management has;
- to review all functions of management;
- to discuss the main ways of improving functions of management;

Funktionen des Rechtes

16 Октября 2011, реферат

Die wichtigste Funktion des Rechts ist die Sicherung des inneren Friedens. In einer Gesellschaft gibt es unterschiedliche Interessen, die unausweichlich zu Konflikten führen. Das Recht sorgt dafür, dass sie auf friedliche Weise in einem geregelten Verfahren ausgetragen werden.

Future Profession

07 Ноября 2011, сочинение

What should I choose as my future profession?” – this is a question that every young person asks himself entering the adult world. Of course, it’s not an easy thing to choose a profession out of more than 2,000 existing in the world. It’s especially difficult if you like doing different things, if you have different hobbies and interests.

Gegenstand und Aufgaben der Stilistik

28 Февраля 2013, доклад

Die Stilistik ist ein Zweig der philologischen Wissenschaften, sie verfügt über ihr spezifisches Forschungsgebit und hat ihre spezifischen Aufgaben. Der Gegenstand der Stilistik ist die Erforschung von Sprachstilen unter Berücksichtigung ihrer historischen Entwicklung. Stilistik ist die Lehre von Stilen einer Nationalsprache, von ihren Beziehungen zueinander, von den synonymischen Ausdrucksmöglichkeiten im schriftlichen und mündlichen Verkehr innerhalb einer Nation unter konkreten gesellschaftlichen und individuell bedingten Umständen.

Gender equality as a prerequisite for sustainable development

18 Марта 2012, статья

Gender equality and sustainable development are two goals that are gaining more and more importance within social and representative policy in all developing world. Sustainable development requires the full and equal participation of women at all levels [4]. Women’s rights are universal rights and are protected by international human rights conventions. Gender inequality is a problem faced by all regions of the developing world. In only four countries – Iceland, Finland, Norway and Swed

General definition of the phenomenon of synonyms in modern English

24 Ноября 2011, дипломная работа

The actuality of this work caused by several important points. We seem to say that the problem of synonyms is one of the main difficult ones for the English language learners. It can be most clearly seen in the colloquial layer of a language, which, in its turn at high degree is supported by development of modern informational technologies and simplification of alive speech. As a result, a great number of new meanings of one and the same word appear in our vocabulary. So the significance of our work can be proved by the following reasons:
a) The problem of synonymy is one of the developing branches of vocabulary nowadays.
b) Synonymy reflects the general trend of enrichment of a language word-stock.
c) Synonymy is closely connected with the development of modern informational technologies.
d) Being a developing branch of linguistics it requires a special attention of teachers to be adequated to their specialization in English.
Having based upon the actuality of the theme we are able to formulate the general goals of our qualification work.
a) to study, analyze, and sum up all the possible changes happened in the studied branch of linguistics for the past fifty years;
b) to analyze what problems the interpreter face with while translating synonyms;
c) to demonstrate the significance of the problem for those who want to brush up their English.

General Pattern of Education in the USA

23 Ноября 2011, доклад

The general pattern of education in the USA is an eight-year elementary school, followed by a four-year high school. This has been called 8—4 plan organization. It is proceeded, in many localities, by nursery schools and kindergartens. It is followed by a four-year college and professional schools. This traditional pattern, however, has been varied in many different ways.

General properties of cement

15 Мая 2013, реферат

All types of cement shrink during setting. In a normal concrete the amount of this shrinkage will depend both on the proportion of cement in the mix and the quantity of mixing water employed. Provided enough water is present to enable the chemical action of setting to take place then the smaller the amount of water the less shrinkage there will be. The type of aggregate used has an appreciable effect upon both the amount of water and the amount of aggregate that can be mixed with given quantity of cement. Strength and durability of concrete are linked properties in that they are both associated with the low water-cement ration. In addition to the proportion of cement and the water cement ratio of a cement product, the method of curing will also affect the amount of shrinkage. Normally, the slower the drying the less shrinkage there will be.

Geographical position of Great Britain. Climate. Mineral resources

12 Марта 2012, курсовая работа

I have decided to write about natural features of Great Britain, because as for me, it is very beautiful and picturesque country. By natural features of a country we usually mean several things: its geographical position, climate, surface divisions, rivers and lakes, soils and mineral resources. In almost all of these respects Great Britain is more or less fortunate.

Geographical structure of foreign trade

22 Апреля 2012, реферат

Russian trade with far abroad countries rose in 2010 by 34% - to $ 628.5 billion trade turnover between Russia and the CIS countries increased in 2010 by 29% to $ 106.5 billion