Рефераты по иностранным языкам

Invention in Chemistry

15 Декабря 2011, доклад

Invention is a creative process. An open and curious mind allows an inventor to see beyond what is known. Seeing a new possibility, connection, or relationship can spark an invention. Inventive thinking frequently involves combining concepts or elements from different realms that would not normally be put together. Sometimes inventors disregard the boundaries between distinctly separate territories or fields.

Inventions and technology

01 Декабря 2011, сочинение

Throughout the history, inventions have helped people discover new world, build communities, develop resources and enjoy life to the fullest.
An invention is an object, process or technique which displays an element of novelty. Some inventions also represent a radical breakthrough in science or technology which extends the boundaries of human knowledge.

Investment funds in Republic of Kazakhstan

06 Ноября 2011, курсовая работа

The term “investment” from Latin “invest” means input capital in order to receive definite benefit. According to the Law of RK “about investments” investments are “ all kinds of property (except goods for personal consumption), including subjects of financial , also rights for it, which is inputted by investor into charter capital of juridical entity or increasing of fixed assets that used for entrepreneurial activity.

Invisible aids of man

17 Февраля 2013, реферат

One need not have anything to do with medicine as such to know of the existence of such powerful therapeutic agents as penicillin, Chloromycetin or streptomycin. These are all antibiotic substances, products of the life-activity of harmless microbes and small fungi which are lethal to other pathogenic fungi and microbes.

Isaac Newton

22 Января 2011, доклад

Isaac Newton (born Isaac Newton, December 25, 1642 - March 20, 1727 on the Julian calendar in force in England until 1752, or January 4, 1643 - March 31, 1727 in the Gregorian calendar) - an English physicist, mathematician and astronomer, one of the founders of classical physics.

Italienische Küche

04 Марта 2011, доклад

Als italienische Küche wird die Gesamtheit der spezifisch italienischen Gerichte bezeichnet. Die italienische Küche besteht aus einer Vielzahl von Regionalküchen und bedingt durch die geographische Lage und lange Kochtradition kann sie auf eine Vielzahl von Zutaten und Spezialitäten zurückgreifen. Historisch unterscheidet man vor allem zwischen der Cucina alto-borghese (womit die exklusive Kochtradition der höheren Stände seit der Renaissance bezeichnet wird) sowie der Cucina povera (der regionalen bäuerlichen und städtischen Küche).


02 Декабря 2010, контрольная работа

Jamaica is an island nation of the Greater Antilles, 234 kilometres (145 mi) in length and as much as 80 kilometres (50 mi) in width, amounting to 11,100 square kilometres (4,300 sq mi). It is situated in the Caribbean Sea, about 145 kilometres (90 mi) south of Cuba, and 191 kilometres (119 mi) west of Hispaniola, the island harboring the nation-states Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Its indigenous Arawakan-speaking Taíno inhabitants named the island Xaymaca, meaning the "Land of Wood and Water", or the "Land of Springs".

Jargonismen im Deutschen und ihre Klassifikation

19 Февраля 2013, реферат

Obwohl wir alle von uns behaupten, Deutsch zu sprechen, kann man mitnichten sagen, dass wir alle gleich sprechen. Gerade in Deutschland, aber nicht nur dort, finden wir von Süd nach Nord, von Obst nach West auffällige Unterschiede, nicht nur in der Aussprache, sondern auch im Wortschatz.
Teilweise sind diese Unterschiede so groß, dass das gegenseitige Verstehen zumindest kurzfristig davon in Mitleidenschaft gezogen wird. Aber nicht nur Geographie hat einen Einfluss darauf, wie wir sprechen. Man erkennt Personen eines bestimmten Alters recht schnell an ihrer Sprache. Solche Unterschiede existieren zwischen den sozialen Schichten.

Jessica Marie Alba

21 Октября 2011, реферат

Jessica Marie Alba (born April 28, 1981)[1] is an American television and film actress. She began her television and movie appearances at age 13 in Camp Nowhere and The Secret World of Alex Mack (1994). Alba rose to prominence as the lead actress in the television series Dark Angel (2000–2002).[2][3] Alba later appeared in various films including Honey (2003), Sin City (2005), Fantastic Four (2005), Into the Blue (2005), Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer and Good Luck Chuck both in 2007

John Keats’ life and creativity work

10 Марта 2013, реферат

John Keats (31 October 1795 – 23 February 1821) was an English Romantic poet. Along with Lord Byron and Percy Bysshe Shelley, he was one of the key figures in the second generation of the Romantic movement, despite the fact that his work had been in publication for only four years before his death. Although his poems were not generally well received by critics during his life, his reputation grew after his death to the extent that by the end of the 19th century he had become one of the most beloved of all English poets. He has had a significant influence on a diverse range of later poets and writers: Jorge Luis Borges stated that his first encounter with Keats was the most significant literary experience of his life.


01 Марта 2013, курс лекций

The Republic of Kazakhstan is a sovereign state in the centre of the Eurasian continent. The official language is Kazakh. The national currency is tenge.

Kazakhstan at a Precipice

28 Марта 2013, творческая работа

This is a holiday season the people of Kazakhstan will not soon forget. On Dec. 16 security forces in the western city of Zhanaozen killed and wounded hundreds of unarmed demonstrators, mostly striking oil workers, occupying a public square. Officials claim only 15 people died but reports from local people — impossible to confirm — say the death toll was higher. A startling video on YouTube — blacked out in Kazakhstan — shows police firing on fleeing civilians.

Kursinis darbas

16 Февраля 2012, реферат

Nusikalstamumo kaip socialinio reiškinio tyrimas yra permanentinis procesas, nes pats šis reiškinys nuolat atsinaujina ir kinta. Šiuolaikinėje Lietuvoje stipriai pasikeitus sociumo gyvenimo sąlygoms ir raiškos formoms vyksta dideli viso nusikalstamumo pokyčiai. Kuriantis Lietuvos Respublikos demokratinei valstybei ir teisei, teoriniu ir praktiniu požiūriu aktualu ištirti nusikalstamumo ir politikos tarpusavio sąveiką. Valstybės institucijos ir politikai turi visas priemones siekti valstybei reikalingų tikslų: priimti reikalingus sprendimus, keisti įstatymus, jei jie trukdo pasiekti reikalingus tikslus, pertvarkyti institucijas. Nusikalstamumo pokyčius visoje šalyje labiausiai įtakoja šalies ekonominis nuosmukis.

La delegada del Gobierno abre un expediente para investigar si la Policía se extralimitó

27 Марта 2012, статья

La delegada del Gobierno en la Comunidad Valenciana, Paula Sánchez de León, ha anunciado la apertura de un "expediente informativo" para estudiar si ha habido extralimitación policial en las cargas de los últimos días contra las protestas de los estudiantes y en su caso tomar medidas. "Si se deriva algún tipo de exceso policial, se depurarán responsabilidades", ha mantenido.
Sánchez de León se ha pronunciado así tras reunirse con el secretario

La Fiesta de San Juan

30 Марта 2013, реферат

Es una festividad de origen muy antiguo que suele ir ligada a encender hogueras o fuegos, ligada con las celebraciones en la que se festejaba la llegada del solsticio de verano en el hemisferio norte, cuyo rito principal consiste en encender una hoguera. El 24, se celebra el nacimiento de San Juan, quien preparó a la humanidad para la llegada de Jesús. Su nacimiento ocurrió en unafecha muy cercana a un solsticio (de invierno para el hemisferio sur, y de verano para el hemisferio norte), lo que quiere decir que lo que está en juego son poderosas energías solares actuando en la Tierra. Pasar por encima de las hogueras que se encienden esta noche o meterse en el mar y saltar olas, son sólo algunas de esas leyendas que permiten, según se dice, que se cumplan algunos de los deseos que pedimos durante esta noche tan llena de magia.

LA Galaxy

27 Ноября 2012, творческая работа

Los Angeles Galaxy" (born Los Angeles Galaxy) - American football club from the city of Los Angeles, California, acting in MLS, the highest football league of the United States and Canada. Is one of the ten clubs that founded the league in 1996. Three-time Cup MLS (2002, 2005, 2011.). CONCACAF Champions League winner in 2000, one of only two MLS clubs have managed to win the title.

Labour Law and Labour Protection

26 Февраля 2013, реферат

Inga is working in private enterprise. She gets a salary only once a month, but she knows that in some companies salaries are paid twice in a month. When Inga informed of their desire to receive salary twice a month, employer refused, based on the grounds that this is a private company and organization of payment procedure is right of employer.
Please, give analysis of this case, based on the provisions of the Labour Law of Latvia and Labour Law of any other country. If

Land recourses, water resources in Germany and Japan

19 Октября 2011, курсовая работа

The high standards of economic, technological and social development achieved by Japan and Germany have gained worldwide acknowledgement . This explains the increasing interest of researches in analyzing the policy models that enabled such an impressive growth. The comparative analysis of the two countries` natural resources makes up the object of my research as a means of a deeper insight into the factors of the above-mentioned growth.

Language and culture.Writing skills

13 Апреля 2011, курсовая работа

Culture and language are deeply related in that language can be used to reflect the culture of a particular society or the language can reflect the culture and its world view. Language is used to express and sustain culture and cultural associations that exist in a given society. Different ideas result from the use of different languages within a culture. World view is a structure consisting of ideas and beliefs through which a person interprets the world around him and also the world view determines how the person interacts with it.

Language dialects of English

01 Апреля 2013, курсовая работа

The actuality of the theme. The study provides invaluable dialects and inexhaustible material not only to penetrate into the deepest roots of language, its historical past but can sensibly, without bias and one-sidedness to evaluate and understand the characteristics of the formation and development of literary norms, different social and professional dialects and language options. Only accounting dialect data provides an opportunity to understand not only the so-called "deviations" from the rules of spelling and grammar, but the rules themselves, and can serve as a solid basis for studying the formation and development of the meanings of words.

Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

05 Апреля 2012, доклад

Large Hadron Collider (English LHC, Large Hadron Collider), being built at present at the European Center for Nuclear Research CERN (Centre Europeen de Recherche Nucleaire) efforts of physicists around the world, is an accelerator designed to accelerate protons and heavy ions. The purpose of the LHC project is primarily the discovery of the Higgs boson - the most important of the experimentally found particles of the Standard Model (SM) - as well as search for phenomena physics beyond SM. Also, attention will be paid to study the properties of W and Z-boson nucleus interactions at ultrahigh energies, the processes of production and decays of heavy quarks (b and t).
Construction History

Latin and Greek borrowings

28 Марта 2012, реферат

The vocabulary of Modern English is a product of a number of epoch. It consist of two layers – the native stock of words and the borrowed stock of words. Native words comprise only 30% of the total number of words in the English vocabulary but the native words form the bulk of the most frequent words actually used in speech and writing.

Latvijas nodokļu sistēmas analīze

15 Декабря 2011, реферат

Nodokļu sistēma ir neatkarīgās valsts pastāvēšanas nosacījums, tādēļ nodokļu politikai ir visciešākais sakars gan ar politisko, gan ekonomisko situāciju. Nodokļu politiku valsts dzīvē ir grūti pārvērtēt. Ekonomikas attīstība, ražošanas efektivitāte, resursu un patēriņa racionalizācija, valsts ekonomiskā stabilitāte, vienlīdzība un taisnīgums - visi šie uzdevumi cieši saistīti ar nodokļu sistēmu un nodokļu politiku.

Leadership and change

25 Февраля 2011, реферат

Leadership has existed for very long time, since people have started acting in close relation with each other. Leadership is present in all cultures (Rukmani 2010). The aim of an essay is to discuss the role of the leadership. The essay also identifies the differences between leadership and management. It will descry the qualities which are inherent a good leader. The essay will give a wide range of examples of different styles of leadership.

Learning strategies

09 Декабря 2011, реферат

A learning style is a student's consistent way of responding to and using stimulus in the context of learning. Educational conditions under which a student is most likely to learn.

Leges duodecim tabularum

09 Февраля 2011, контрольная работа

1. Praetor urbanus ius inter cives dicito.

2. Si in ius vocat, ito.

3. Ni it, antestamino, igitur em capito.

4. Adsiduo vindex adsiduus esto. Proletario iam civi quis volet vindex esto.

5. Rem ubi pacunt, orato.

Les préoccupations des gaulois

20 Февраля 2012, реферат

Agriculteurs expérimentes, es Gaulois font découvrir a leurs vainqueurs la charrue, la moissonneuse, l’amendement des sols...Très vite, ils acclimatent la vigne dont les meilleurs crus seront fort goutes a Rome. Surtout, la Gaule constitue comme l’Espagne ou l’Egypte, un grenier a blé ou le vainqueur puise abondamment pour nourrir ses armées. La majorité des Gallo-Romains sont agriculteurs, mais paradoxalement, le paysage rural nous est beaucoup moins familier que le paysage urbain.

Lexicography is divided into two related disciplines

30 Марта 2013, доклад

General lexicography focuses on the design, compilation, use and evaluation of general dictionaries, i.e. dictionaries that provide a description of the language in general use. Such a dictionary is usually called a general dictionary or LGP dictionary (Language for General Purpose). Specialized lexicography focuses on the design, compilation, use and evaluation of specialized dictionaries, i.e. dictionaries that are devoted to a (relatively restricted) set of linguistic and factual elements of one or more specialist subject fields, e.g. legal lexicography. Such a dictionary is usually called a specialized dictionary or LSP dictionary and following Nielsen 1994, specialized dictionaries are either multi-field, single-field or sub-field dictionaries.

Lexicography. Types of Vocabularies

25 Октября 2011, курсовая работа

It’s well known that we can’t imagine studying any language in the world without such an important thing as a dictionary. It’s obvious that it plays the most leading role in studying a language. But there’s such a problem as what kind of a dictionary we must choose to improve our speech skills day by day.


26 Февраля 2013, курс лекций

ist Lehre vom Wortschatz
ist eine sprachwissenschaftliche Disziplin, die den Wortschatz einer Sprache betrachtet ( früher wurde sie Wortkunde genannt )
untersucht und beschreibt die Struktur, Bildung, Funktion der Elemente der Sprache